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Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15Palestinians marking the 64 anniversary of al-Nakba (catastrophe) with protests, while Israeli security reacted with conducted arrests campaigns on May 15

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Annual Narrative Report (2000)

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PREFACE

Our second annual report aims to describe the Israeli inhuman practices against Palestinians in East Jerusalem in explicit violation of international laws and conventions, as well as international legitimate resolutions pertaining to Occupied Arab Jerusalem.

Cases that were and continue to be defended by the Center constitute a clear example of the Israeli arbitrary policy in East Jerusalem. This policy is clearly manifested in the oppression of Palestinian Jerusalemites, denial of their social and humanitarian rights, and placing them under overwhelming difficulties with the aim of forcing them out of their homeland as part of implementing the far-reaching policy of ethnic cleansing programmed by the Israelis.

This report constitutes strong condemnation of the Israeli crimes committed against Palestinians in East Jerusalem and aims to highlight the lies and deception of the Zionist media, which claims that Israel is regarded as the most democratic state in the Middle East. This report indisputably proves that the state of Israel practices a policy of racial discrimination against Palestinian citizens in East Jerusalem.

The report also examines Israeli violations of the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention pertaining to areas under the Israeli military occupation and also calls for ensuring international protection for the Palestinian people in the Palestinian territories occupied in June 1967, first and foremost Arab East Jerusalem.

This report is a call for human rights organizations and other international organizations to investigate Israels violations of international laws and conventions and other human rights violations committed against Palestinian Jerusalemites.

We hope that this report would be a cry echoing in the ears of those who are deceived by the policy of the Israeli media. We also hope that it would not be a cry in a barren wilderness.


JCSER Director


JERUSALEM CENTER FOR
SOCIAL & ECONOMIC RIGHTS

The Jerusalem Center for Social & Economic Rights (JCSER) is a Palestinian human rights non-governmental organization. Based in East Jerusalem, JCSER was established in late 1997 by a group of Palestinian lawyers and individuals concerned with Jerusalem and human rights issues. JCSER was established with the aim of:
Confronting Israels discriminatory policies and violations in Jerusalem;
Defending the rights of Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem in accordance with UN Resolutions and international human rights conventions pertaining to the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), including Arab East Jerusalem.

In order to ensure the protection of the rights of Palestinian Jerusalemites, JCSER:
Monitors and documents human rights violations committed against Palestinians in East Jerusalem;
Provides free legal aid services to Palestinians;
Publishes scientific studies and research dealing with the social and economic conditions of Palestinian Jerusalemites;
Raises public awareness concerning existing laws and international human rights laws and conventions.

JCSER provides victims of Israeli violations the right to defend themselves in various Israeli courts and provides legal representation through its lawyers or through delegated lawyers from abroad. The Center ensures the protection of citizens rights to residency, citizenship, housing, work, medical treatment, education, freedom of movement, and guarantees benefits and allowances to which Palestinian citizens are entitled from the National Insurance Institute (NII) and the Jerusalem Municipality. JCSER deals with cases related to Israels policy of house demolition, ID card confiscation and denial of citizenship and residency rights in Jerusalem. It also deals with Israels unfair discriminatory policy of the Arnona tax imposed on Palestinian Jerusalemites without taking into consideration the various income levels and social differences between East Jerusalem and West Jerusalem.

JCSER has undertaken experimental cases to be submitted to Israeli courts, including the Supreme Court, and established legal precedents on the social and economic conditions of Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem.

The Center organizes special visits to the Holy Land consisting of international and legal delegations and human rights observers with the aim of investigating Israeli human rights violations committed against Palestinians in East Jerusalem, and exerting pressure on the international community to end Israeli inhuman practices. Such practices constitute grave violations of international laws and conventions pertaining to the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), including East Jerusalem.

The Center organizes and participates in local and international conferences and workshops that address Israeli human rights violations and aims to disclose these violations in order to emphasize the need to implement international laws and conventions and legitimate resolutions related to human rights in Jerusalem for being part of the occupied territories.

JCSER is an effective member of:
The Jerusalem Coalition against House Demolition;
The Coalition for the Defense of Jerusalem;
The Coalition to Stop ID Card Confiscation from Palestinian Jerusalemites;
The Coalition for Education;
The Land Defense Committees.
**********************

INTRODUCTION

Since the occupation of East Jerusalem in June 1967, the city and its residents have been subjected to an Israeli illegal discriminatory policy violating basic human rights. The policy aims at dedicating coercive annexation of the city and clearing out the city of its original inhabitants through ethnic cleansing, racial discrimination and denying citizenship and residency rights. Throughout 33 years of occupation, Israels polices aimed at changing the legal, geographical, demographic, economic and administrative status of the Holy City.

JCSER was established in 1997 with the aim of confronting Israels discriminatory practices against Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem, defending their rights, and providing free legal aid services.

In its second annual report, covering the period between 1 September 1999 and 31 December 2000, JCSER sheds light on human rights violations committed by Israel against Palestinian citizens. Such practices constitute grave violations of international human rights conventions and laws. This report also presents different cases in which local residents were provided with free legal aid and outlines activities carried out by the Center during the mentioned period.

ISRAELI VIOLATIONS IN
OCCUPIED ARAB JERUSALEM

Following the occupation of Arab East Jerusalem on 5 June 1967, Israel declared the annexation of Jerusalem on 28 June 1967. Following its annexation, Israel took a number of measures with the aim of tightening its control over East Jerusalem and its Arab residents. Tens of thousands of Palestinians were forcibly expelled from their homes. Tens of thousands of Palestinians were unable to return, as a result of the Israeli aggression against Palestinian Jerusalemites.

Following the occupation of East Jerusalem and its annexation in June 1967, Israel launched its first demolition and ethnic cleansing campaign when the Israeli occupation troops demolished the neighborhoods of As-Sharaf and Al-Magharbeh to build Jewish settlements in their place. Original inhabitants were expelled from their homes. At that time, the Israeli government carried out its first operation, which involved the expansion of the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem in synch with the annexation declaration, which was followed by the annexation of 70,500 dunums of the land of East Jerusalem to the Jewish side of Jerusalem. The government imposed its own regulations, in accordance with an orchestrated racist policy, on the city and its legitimate inhabitants. The policy aimed at:
Expropriating land and properties to build new and expand existing Jewish settlements;
Judaizing the city of Jerusalem;
Evacuating and uprooting original inhabitants from their homes;
Emptying the city of its legitimate inhabitants to pave the way for the construction and expansion of Jewish settlements.

This has formed the core of Israels policy in Jerusalem over 33 years of occupation with the aim of Judaizing the Holy City and imposing the reality of coercive annexation. Violations committed by the Israeli government against Palestinian residents in the Holy City have diversified.

MOST PROMINENT VIOLATIONS COMMITTED
AGAINST ARAB RESIDENTS
IN EAST JERUSALEM

I. CONFISCATION OF PROPERTIES & COERCIVE ANNEXATION OF JERUSALEM

Israeli successive governments, including the current government, have continued to expropriate Arab land and properties in East Jerusalem in many illegal ways, which are based on the superiority of the occupying country and its regulations in explicit violation of international laws and conventions. At least, 34% of the land of Jerusalem has been confiscated by the Israeli occupation authorities to build new and expand existing Jewish settlements, and 52% declared green area where construction is forbidden for Arab Palestinians. However, green area remains a strategic reserve for present and future settlement activities. Throughout the years, Israel did not hesitate to use this reserve for settlement expansion and construction as in the case of the Jewish settlement of Jabal Abu Ghneim Har Homa, the settlement of Ghibat Ha Shufat and other settlements. The settlement construction is carried out not only at the expense of Arab properties, but also at the expense of Palestinian housing needs. Palestinian Jerusalemites are denied housing rights, as a result of the Israeli restrictive policies in the city.

The Israeli government has imposed property tax on privately owned properties, including properties, which have not been exploited by its owners, or on properties that owners have not used due to:
Financial difficulties;
Military orders banning construction;
Problems related to settlement of inheritance;
High costs of building;
Difficulties in obtaining building permits from the Israeli government;
Restrictions imposed by Israel concerning building permits.

Property tax was imposed retroactively on landowners. If the landowner was unable to pay the tax, the Israeli government filed a case against him and put the real estate for auction in favor of Jewish settlements. This has been the case in the northern and southern parts of Jerusalem.

The Israeli government confiscated 34% of the land of Jerusalem under the pretext of public interest. An estimated 15 Jewish settlements were built on the confiscated land, nine industrial zones, and a hundred factories for light and heavy industries. Large numbers of properties have been confiscated in Jerusalem and its suburbs, through Israeli official institutions, to accommodate fascist and extremist groups. These properties belonged to individual, Islamic Waqf, Christian Waqf and public properties (state or municipality).

Throughout 33 years of occupation, Israel launched three expansion campaigns involving the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem in order to pave the way for the Judaization of the Holy City and emptying the city of its original inhabitants. The first campaign was carried out following the Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem in June 1967, in which it became 70.5 square km2. The second took place in 1982 in what was called The Center Project, while the third expansion was part of the Greater Jerusalem or the Metropolitan Plan, which was endorsed by the Israeli government on 28 June 1998. The Plan aimed primarily at expanding the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem and linking surrounding Jewish settlements together in a way to enable Israel to swallow up more land to build new Jewish neighborhoods. According to the Greater Jerusalem Plan, Israel swallows up parts of the heart of the West Bank up to Jericho eastwards and Ramallah northwards and the northern part of the governorate of the West Bank city of Hebron. The municipal boundaries of Jerusalem will be expanded to become 665 square km2.

As for the settlement activities, the Israeli government opened a network of bypass roads, including bypass road no. 45, which was opened around Jerusalem. The road, known as the eastern cordon, was opened primarily to isolate a large number of Arab villages in the governorate of Jerusalem, such as Abu Dis, Al-Izzariyya, Anata, Az-Zayim, and Sawahreh Ash-Sharqiya, passing through Sheikh Saad area in East Jerusalem. These areas have for long been exposed to a vicious settlement campaign, which involved confiscation of land, demolition of Arab houses and building restrictions.

The aerial maps of the bypass road show that these villages are isolated from each other, whereas Jewish settlements built on the borders of Jerusalem are linked together. Reports have shown that the Israeli company, Moriah, has completed preparing the structural plans for the bypass road, which starts from the Jerusalem-Hebron road in the northern crossroads of Talpiot, passes through the village of Sur Baher, Sawahreh Al-Gharbiya and Sawahreh Ash-Sharqiya and twists around the villages of East Jerusalem. The road goes northwards up to Qalandia Airport, passes through Bitunia and ends at Beit Sheimesh area near Ben Gurion Airport. The maps clarified that the bypass road links the settlement of Jabal Abu Ghneim, south of Jerusalem, to the Jewish settlement of Maale Adumim, passing through the Jerusalem-Jericho road. The schemes of the bypass road contain three tunnels each 1.8 square km2 long. By opening the road, over 700 dunums and tens of homes will be destroyed, not to mention the environmental damages caused in the area.

It should be mentioned that over 16,000 dunums of Palestinian land surrounding Jerusalem have been confiscated under the umbrella of building security settlement roads. Over 38 Arab houses in the neighborhoods of Sawahreh Ash-Sharqiya, Abu Tor and Abu Dis are threatened with demolition by the opening of these roads. 15 out of 38 houses have been already demolished so far.

II. FLAGRANT DISCRIMINATION AGAINST JERUSALEMITES (ORIGINAL INHABITANTS)

Palestinians have access to only 14% of the land of East Jerusalem, on which construction is allowed. However, difficult conditions are set by the Israeli government to obtain building permits. At least, 34% of the land has been confiscated to build new and expand existing Jewish settlements, and 52% declared green area where construction is forbidden for Arab Palestinians. Israel has allowed for settlement construction seven times more than what is planned for Palestinians despite their desperate need for housing.

During thirty-three years of occupation, Palestinians have been exposed to various inhuman and barbaric measures and practices, amongst which are:
Confiscation of land for settlement expansion and construction;
Demolition of Arab houses for settlement activities;
Restrictions on building and renovation works;
High fines imposed on Palestinians for building without permits.

Palestinian Jerusalemites have for long experienced an unbearable housing crisis. Many of them are forced to build without obtaining permits from the Israeli government in order to provide shelter to their families, not to mention those who are forced to live outside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem, due to lack of housing possibilities.

According to JCSER and the Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights & the Environment (LAW), some 177 Arab houses have been demolished in Jerusalem by Israel over the past five years, in addition to issuing over 558 house demolition orders for building without permits.

Building restrictions are imposed on Palestinians in East Jerusalem, many of whom are forced to build without permits from the Israeli government, if issued, a $25,000-fee must be paid. It usually takes over a year to obtain a building permit from the Israeli government and those who build without permits are charged high fees by Israel.

Arab houses are demolished by Israel to make way for settlement activities in Jerusalem and its suburbs. The policy of house demolition, adopted by Israel since June 1967, is one form of collective punishment against Palestinians and constitutes grave violations of International Laws, especially article 33 of the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention, which prohibits such a policy.

Restrictions are also placed on renovation works. There are 1,400 houses inside the walls of the Old City in desperate need of renovation. 356 out of 1,400 are on the verge of collapse, due to insufficient services and proper renovation, in addition to excavations carried out by the Jerusalem Municipality.

The general closure and separation policy imposed by Israel since March 1993 has caused severe damages in various sectors. The Israeli government has continued illegally and unjustly to impose exorbitant taxes on Palestinian Jerusalemites in return for poor quality services. Taxes are imposed on Palestinians without taking into consideration the different income levels and social differences between East Jerusalem and West Jerusalem. This has led to the spread of bankruptcy amongst Palestinians. There has been a 40% increase in poverty rates and 35% rise in the unemployment rate amongst Palestinians, not to mention that a number of retail shops have been forced to close down as the owners were unable to pay taxes imposed by the Jerusalem Municipality.

Palestinians unable to pay the Arnona tax are being subjected to a series of illegal and punitive measures by the Israeli government. Imprisonment and confiscation of properties is one form of measures taken against Palestinians in East Jerusalem. Although Palestinian citizens have to pay high Arnona tax, they receive poor quality services. According to JCSER, the total amount of taxes earned from Palestinian Jerusalemites exceeds 30% of the Arnona tax fund at the Jerusalem Municipality in return for only 5% of the total services provided to them. Israels tax policy in East Jerusalem is completely racist. Taxes imposed in East Jerusalem are the same as those in West Jerusalem without taking into consideration the different income levels between East and West Jerusalem and the differences in cultural and social life that affect income levels and living patterns.

It has become familiar to see growing numbers of businesses shut down, as a result of the Israeli policy in East Jerusalem. According to a field study conducted by JCSER, 250 out of 1000 shops shut down in the Old City, due to their inability to pay taxes.

Arab East Jerusalem suffers from severe shortage of infrastructure services. Israel is tightening its control over Jerusalem and its residents in various aspects of life. On the educational level, Israel continues to impose its curriculum on schools in East Jerusalem. There is a shortage of 344 classrooms, which contribute to the deterioration of education standards compared to that of West Jerusalem.

The tourism sector has reported severe loses, as a result of the Israeli practices in Arab East Jerusalem. During the Israeli occupation, not a single hotel was built in Arab East Jerusalem. Palestinians have for long been prevented from distributing printed brochures to tourists. Instead, they are given Israeli publications, which provide incorrect and distorted facts and information about the Holy City, its history, and archeological sites. Israel has for long monopolized this industry by providing Israeli tourist guides who present distorted information about Jerusalem, its history, and its residents.

According to official Palestinian sources, the number of Arab tourist guides and tourist agencies in Jerusalem has dropped. In 1967, there were 207 tourist guides, this figure dropped to 100 in 1990, and 47 tourist agencies in 1967 dropped to 32 in 1990. The number of Arab-owned hotels in Jerusalem has dropped to 40. The ongoing closure of Jerusalem imposed since March 1993 has prevented Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip from marketing their products, such as the olivewood produced in Bethlehem and glass in Hebron. Christians constituted 72% of the total pilgrims visiting the Holy Land from all over the world, Jews 18% and Moslems 10%. People visiting the Holy City for religious reasons constituted 25% of the total pilgrims during 1994, confirming that Jerusalem is a Palestinian tourist city and that tourism is an essential sector for the Palestinian national economy. Jerusalem is a main touristic treasury for Palestinians, especially as religious tourism is one of the most ancient industries in Palestine.

The Israeli slogan United Jerusalem is Israels Eternal Capital was promoted to create the idea amongst tourists that united Jerusalem is one city and that the occupied Arab East Jerusalem is an integral part of the city. Besides promoting the slogan, Israel took a number of measures to realize this slogan and to control the Arab population in the city. These include:
Expropriation of Arab land and properties;
Unrealistic increase in the price of land;
Uprooting olive trees and agricultural products to pave the way for settlement construction and expansion;
Imposing high taxes on Palestinians;
Imposing difficult conditions on Palestinians to obtain building permits;
Placing restrictions on buildings by not exceeding certain height;
Placing restrictions on renovation of archeological and religious sites.
These measures contributed significantly to the deterioration in the Palestinian economy in East Jerusalem.

III. CONFISCATION OF CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS

Palestinian citizens are constantly harassed by the Israeli Ministry of the Interior with the aim of forcing them out of their homes and denying their basic rights to citizenship, residency, housing, medical care, work, schooling, and other rights. To achieve this, the Interior Ministry coordinates closely with other Israeli institutions, including the National Insurance Institute (NII).

Palestinian Jerusalemites are regarded as residents subject to the treatment and conditions of residency rights applied to foreigners despite their deep roots in the Holy City. Identity cards granted to Palestinian Jerusalemites provide these residents with the same status of permanent resident granted to foreigners living in Israel. Israel deals with Palestinians as immigrants living in their homes as a favor, not as their natural right acknowledged in international and humanitarian laws and conventions before anything else.

Israel has imposed difficult and impossible conditions on Palestinian Jerusalemites by challenging them with the burden of having to prove their center of life without justification. Palestinians have to provide official documents and papers that prove their place of residence in Jerusalem for a minimum period of seven years. According to unofficial Israeli sources and human rights organizations, some 20,000 children are denied registration on their parents ID cards, which means they are also deprived of services to which they are entitled from the National Insurance Institute. The situation became worse by the end of 1995 when the Ministry of the Interior confiscated randomly a huge quantity of ID cards from Palestinians, claiming that they were not resident inside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem. The 1952 Law of Entry to Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem was applied according to the whims and interpretations of the Ministry of the Interior, which contradicts the articles of the law itself.

The instructions given by the Interior Ministry to Palestinians concerning requirements to prove their center of life are characterized by ambiguity and vagueness. Providing incorrect information to Palestinians helps the Interior Ministry to achieve its main objectives. It also adopts several measures to control the Arab population in the city. These include confiscation of Jerusalem ID cards, its refusal to register children on their parents ID cards, and its denial of their social services and benefits provided by the National Insurance Institute. As a result, Palestinians face numerous health, psychological and financial problems and entire families are forced to flee the city.

In accordance with Israeli residency laws adopted against Palestinian Jerusalemites, women married to non-Jerusalemites are automatically considered residents outside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem unless the National Insurance Institute proves the opposite. In order for pregnant women to obtain birth allowances (hospital expenses covered by the National Insurance Institute), their names should be registered in a hospital and periodical medical examinations must be made within the first sixth months of pregnancy, attaching two copies of the medical reports showing the progress of pregnancy.

Israeli officials, including Former Interior Minister, Natan Sharansky, and Deputy Minister in Charge of Jerusalem Affairs, Haim Ramon, have repeatedly stated that radical changes will be made in the Ministrys policy towards Arab residents. They noted that there would be an improvement in the treatment of Arab residents according to new instructions by the Interior Ministry. But practices adopted by the Ministry of the Interior and the National Insurance Institute against Arab residents contradict these statements.

JCSER confirmed that there has been no change in the treatment of Palestinian Jerusalemites by the National Insurance Institute. Arabs are humiliated and dehumanized by the Interior Ministrys employees. Bureaucratic and humiliating conditions are imposed on Arabs by challenging them with the burden of having to prove their center of life within the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem. The Ministrys employees still deny that they received new instructions with regard to improving the treatment of Arab residents, however, JCSER obtained a copy of the instructions.

The instructions are summarized as follows:
?According to Israeli law, any Jerusalemite whose name has been cancelled from the Jerusalem census records since 1995 until now due to moving his place of residence outside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem for seven years or more, loses his citizenship and residency rights in Jerusalem. A person can obtain a new residency permit and can have his name registered in the Jerusalem census record only if he lives in Israel for two consecutive years upon his return to the country.
?According to Israeli law, anyone who lived abroad (outside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem) for more than seven years and, for some reason, has not been informed by the Interior Ministry about his ID card confiscation and the cancellation of his residency permit, continues to keep his ID card and residency right.
?It is worth-mentioning that these instructions are the results of the case filed by a group of human rights organizations against the Interior Ministry at the Israel Supreme Court. The Coalition against ID Card Confiscation, of which JCSER is an affective member, was part of this group.

According to a statistical study published by Israeli Journalist Amira Hass in the Hebrew daily Haaretz, some 739 Jerusalem ID cards were confiscated in 1996, and 1067 in 1997; some 788 residency rights were revoked in 1998; 414 citizenship rights were revoked in 1999 and 207 in 2000. These figures confirm that confiscation of citizenship right still occurs. However, as there has not been any significant change in the policy of the Interior Minister, it can be concluded that the efforts of human rights organizations, including JCSER, were successful in restoring citizenship and residency rights to many Palestinians.

Israel publicly declares its policy that aims to maintain a Jewish presence over the Arab population in Occupied Arab Jerusalem and prevents an increase in the number of Arab citizens exceeding more than 25% of the population. Former Israeli governments have allocated huge budgets for this purpose to expedite the process of land confiscation and settlement construction in Jerusalem and its suburbs. Government committees have been formed for this purpose, including the Jerusalem Support Committee, headed by the Director General of the Israeli Ministry of Housing, Shlom Ghreinberg. The Committee aims to build 110,000 units in the year 2001 in its continuous effort to disrupt the balance of the demographic composition of the city in favor of Jewish settlers.

Israels policies in the city of Jerusalem race with time in an attempt to create new facts on the ground before entering any kind of political settlement related to Jerusalem. Such polices contradict international laws and conventions and UN Security Council Resolutions, which describe Israels policies as illegal and illegitimate and constitute grave violations of international laws, according to which Jerusalem is an occupied territory. Violations committed by Israel indicate that racial discrimination is practiced against Arab residents and that Jerusalem is not united as it claims.

JCSER stresses that daily Israeli practices against Palestinians constitute grave violations of international conventions related to human rights in general and civilians under occupation in particular. Practices include:
?Confiscation of Arab land and property;
?Revocation of residency and citizenship rights;
?Confiscation of Jerusalem ID cards;
?Denial of political, civil, social and economic rights of Palestinians, including their right to residency, citizenship, housing, work, education, medical treatment, freedom of movement, freedom of worship and other rights.

Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reads as follows, Every person has the right to leave any country, including his country, and to return to it. This right has been confirmed in articles 12B & 12D of the international law pertaining to civil and political rights. According to international law, Israel is an occupying state and Jerusalem is occupied territory. Israel should abide by the articles of the international laws, including the 1949 Forth Geneva Convention, which was signed by 188 states, including the State of Israel. These articles include: 1, 22, 27, 29, 34, 47, 49, 51, 52, 55, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76 & 77. International resolutions have confirmed the necessity for Israel to comply with the articles of the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention and international laws and conventions pertaining to the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), including Arab East Jerusalem.

AL-AQSA INTIFADA

A
riel Sharons unwelcome visit to Al-Aqsa Mosque on Thursday, 28 September 2000 accompanied by thousands of Israeli soldiers triggered off the war of mass killing practiced by the Israeli occupation authorities against the Palestinian people throughout the West Bank and Gaza Strip, including Arab East Jerusalem.

Sharon, known for initiating bloodshed and massacres, such as the massacre of Qibia and the massacres of Sabra and Shatila in Lebanon, in which thousands of Palestinians were killed, is not the only one responsible for the continued crime against the Palestinian people. Israeli Prime Minister, Ehud Barak, shares this responsibility, as he allowed Sharon with thousands of soldiers to break into the Al-Aqsa Mosque, which has a great significance in the Islamic faith. Barak, who has been awarded the largest number of medals in the history of the Israeli army, allegedly claims that Jews have rights to the Mosque. He along with his Generals supervised a Plan, named Field of Thorns to invade the Palestinian self-rule areas in the West Bank and Gaza Strip with the aim of destroying the Middle East Peace Process and peace making efforts.

The Israeli war launched against the Palestinian people has not only resulted in the killing and injuring of thousands of Palestinians, many of whom will suffer permanent physical disabilities, but also produced devastating impact on various aspects of life, including human rights violations.

Martyrs from Jerusalem since the beginning of the Intifada are listed below.

No.NameAreaAgeDate
1.Yehia Hassan FarajSharafat3029/9/2000
2.Nizar Ibrahim Zuhdi ShweikiSilwan1929/9/2000
3.Osama Mohammed AdamOld City2329/9/2000
4.Bilal Ali Khalil AfanehAbu Dis2329/9/2000
5.Haitham Eweidah IskafiAthori4529/9/2000
6.Mohammed Fawzi Abed
Al-Karim Al-SarkhiAs-Sawahreh224/10/2000
7.Majdi Samir Al-MuslamaniBeit Hanina156/10/2000
8.Khaled Ahmad RizeqHizma172/11/2000
9.Mahmoud Abed Al-JawadHizma193/11/2000
10.Rami Ahmad Abed Al-Fattah MutaweHizma153/11/2000
11.Salah Al-FaqihJerusalem14 1/10/2000
12.Khalil Lawrence BaderJerusalem2511/10/2000
13.Yassin Ibrahim ShihadehJerusalem23 2/12/2000
14.Ammar Samir Al-MashniJerusalem17 9/12/2000
15.Tahrir Suliaman RizeqHizma2031/12/2000

?Five hundred and fifty six Palestinian Jerusalemites were arrested, in addition to thousands injured.

Below JCSER aims to show the devastating impact of the Intifada on religious, economic, agricultural, social, educational, and psychological and health aspects of every day life.

1. RELIGIOUS ASPECT
The Israeli occupation forces continue their closure of the Palestinian territories by transforming Palestinian villages and refugee camps into small cantons, separated from each other. The Israeli forces continuously prevent Palestinian worshippers from praying at the Al Aqsa Mosque, which is considered the third holiest Muslim shrine. Palestinian Christians are also prevented from reaching the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the Old City of Jerusalem. These are elements of the Israeli imposed policy on Jerusalem. These restrictions not only apply to Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, but also to the residents of Jerusalem. Palestinians of a certain age group, defined by the Israeli occupying forces, are excluded from praying at the Al Aqsa Mosque, especially on Fridays.

The Israeli occupation forces have transformed Jerusalem into military barracks, especially on Fridays. Police units and border guards are deployed in large numbers throughout Jerusalem with the aim of spreading fear amongst worshippers, and curbing the commercial activity in the city. Thousands of worshippers are forced to pray in the streets surrounded by huge numbers of Israeli soldiers and border guards. In addition, tens of military checkpoints erected between the West Bank and Jerusalem prevent Muslim worshippers, including those from areas located inside the municipal boundaries, from reaching Jerusalem. Furthermore, a number of military checkpoints have been fixed permanently with the aim of isolating the city of Jerusalem from the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

2. ECONOMIC ASPECT
Since the beginning of the Intifada in late September 2000, the economic situation in the Palestinian territories has reported severe losses, estimated at millions of US dollars. The Israeli closure has had a devastating impact on the economy of East Jerusalem, despite the fact that the Israeli occupation forces have not used tanks and helicopters in the city. Israeli tanks are stationed at the main entrances of Palestinian cities and on hilltops, shelling Palestinian civilians with heavy machine guns and rockets. Jerusalem is not spared from these conditions.

The Israeli closure of the Palestinian territories has prevented some 250,000 workers from crossing the green line, and forced hundreds of Palestinian factories and workshops to close down their businesses. The tourism sector has suffered immensely from the current political situation. Hotels, restaurants, and souvenir shops in various parts of the Palestinian territories were forced to dismiss their employees, due to severe drop in the number of tourists visiting the area. In addition, Palestinian Jerusalemites working inside the green line left their jobs or were forced to leave, as a result of the racial segregation policy adopted by the Israeli occupation forces.

3. AGRICULTURAL ASPECT
The Intifada erupted at the beginning of the harvest season, during which a number of Palestinians were injured and killed while picking olives, in particular in the governorates of Nablus, Salfit and Ramallah. In addition, Israeli bulldozers uprooted thousands of olive trees and prevented Palestinian farmers from reaching their fields to pick the olives. The closure of the Palestinian territories has also prevented Palestinian farmers from marketing their agricultural products, thus causing severe losses, estimated at millions of US dollars.

4. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS
Education has enormously been affected by the Israeli closure of the Palestinian territories. The Israeli occupation forces tend to break into schools for military purposes. A number of schools have been shelled by live ammunition. Palestinian schoolchildren have become targets of the Israeli army. Tens of school children were intentionally shot dead by Israeli snipers upon the instructions of top Israeli officials.

The shelling of Palestinian residential areas with heavy machine guns has had a devastating psychological impact on Palestinian children. They live in a state of constant panic and fear, which has a negative impact on their performances at school. Large numbers of teachers and students are also unable to reach schools, as a result of the closure policy, causing severe disruption in the educational system.

5. HEALTH ASPECT
Palestinian hospitals suffer from severe shortage of medicine and medical supplies necessary for providing proper medical treatment to the injured. Palestinian ambulances have become targets of the Israeli snipers. The killing of a German doctor in Beit Jala while providing first aid to the injured, and the killing of an ambulance driver while trying to save the life of Mohammed Jamal Al-Dura and his father are clear examples of the danger inflicted on the Palestinian medical teams, caused by the Israeli inhuman and ruthless practices.

The Israeli occupation forces prevent ambulances from transferring the injured to hospitals for medical treatment. In addition, Israeli soldiers stationed at military checkpoints prevent ambulances from transferring sick and injured people from one city to another. Pregnant Palestinian women have also been unable to reach the hospitals to give birth because of the military checkpoints erected. Some pregnant women have been forced to give birth at military checkpoints, as they did not get permission to reach the hospital.

The number of injured exceeds the capacity of Palestinian hospitals, forcing many of the injured to suffer whilst waiting for their turn. As a result of this situation, some of the injured have to leave the hospital early before completing their medical treatment to make room for other patients.

Denying access of medical supplies to hospitals by holding them back at military checkpoints and preventing ambulances from bringing the sick and injured to hospitals for medical treatment is a crime that demands immediate local and international intervention.

JCSER ACTIVITIES


SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY
JCSER conducted a study on the social and economic reality of Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem. The study dealt with various issues, amongst which are types and quality services provided to Arab citizens, amounts and types of taxes imposed on citizens, supported by scientific data and figures. The study aimed to research:
Living and economic conditions of Palestinian citizens in Jerusalem;
Quality of services provided to Palestinian Jerusalemites;
Difficulties and hardships faced by Arab citizens as a result of Israels discriminatory polices, which result in citizens denial of their social and economic rights in Jerusalem.

FIELD STUDIES AND STATISTICS
A field study, the first of its kind, was conducted by the Centers field researchers on different types of businesses in East Jerusalem, their area, type of work and number of employees. The study showed that an estimated 25% of businesses shut down in the Old City of Jerusalem during the Israeli occupation, as a result of the economic recession and high taxes. The majority of these businesses were located in Aqbet Al-Khaldiah, Al-Wad Street, Al-Dabbagha, Chain Street, Al-Qattanin Market and Al-Nassarah Quarter.

According to the study, some 125 businesses with a total area of 558 square meters are still open in the neighborhood As-Sharaf in the Old City. Some of these businesses have been established since 1930. The owners have been exposed to frequent attempts by Israel to force them out of the city and have their real estates sold. Despite this, they are steadfast in their homeland, which they inherited from their fathers and grandfathers.

INTERNATIONAL
ACTIVITIES

J
CSER participated in a number of international conferences and meetings with the aim of disclosing human rights violations committed by Israel against the Palestinian people in general and Arab citizens in occupied Jerusalem in particular and their suffering. Such practices constitute grave violations of international laws and conventions and UN Security Council Resolutions pertaining to the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), including Arab East Jerusalem.

JCSER conducted scientific studies and research dealing with Israeli practices and violations in East Jerusalem. It presented a number of papers and proposals outlining measures that should be taken by the international community, its organizations and institutions to end human rights violations committed by Israel against Palestinian Jerusalemites. These papers aimed to:
Put an end to the Israeli violations in Jerusalem;
Protect Palestinian civilians under Israeli military occupation;
Force Israel as an occupying power to respect and comply with International Laws, including the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention;
Activate international support for the rights of the Palestinian people in accordance with international legitimate resolutions.

On 4 September 1999, a conference was held in Athens with the aim of obtaining international support for the rights of the Palestinian people. A speech was delivered by the Centers Director, during which he gave a historic review of the situation in Jerusalem before and after the Israeli occupation in June 1967, supported by figures and studies. In his speech, he strongly condemned the unilateral annexation of East Jerusalem a few days after its occupation. He noted that since 1967, Israel has changed the landmarks of Jerusalem. Entire Arab neighborhoods were completely destroyed by the Israeli occupation authorities, such as Al-Sharaf and Al-Magharbeh in the Old City. Names of streets were changed and entire West Bank areas were confiscated to expand the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem whose total area was 1,500 hectares before the Israeli occupation in 1967. Following the expansion decision, the area of Jerusalem increased to 18,000 hectares. Procedures are currently underway to annex the Jewish settlement of Maale Adumim within the Greater Jerusalem Plan.
Since the annexation of East Jerusalem in June 1967, Jewish settlement activities have been intensified in occupied Arab Jerusalem. The number of Jewish settlers in East Jerusalem exceeds the number of Arabs, although there were few Jewish residents before the Israeli occupation of Jerusalem. Following the annexation of Jerusalem in June 1967, the Arab population constituted 25.8% of the total population in East and West Jerusalem. Now, the Arab population exceeds 30%, due to high reproduction rates amongst Arabs.

In his speech, he referred to the ongoing closure of Jerusalem imposed by Israel on 30 March 1993. He pointed out that Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip have been prevented from entering Jerusalem unless they obtain special permits from the Israeli government. The closure has had a devastating impact on the economy of East Jerusalem and thus on the Palestinian economy in general. Hundreds of businesses inside and outside the Old City were forced to close down, as a result of the economic recession and high taxes imposed by Israel. An estimated 25% of the businesses in the Old City of Jerusalem closed down, as the owners were unable to pay high taxes.

Israels practices primarily aim at encouraging the immigration of Palestinian Jerusalemites out of their homes to make way for the Judaization of Jerusalem. Israeli military forces have confiscated 34% of the land of Jerusalem to build new and expand existing Jewish settlements, and 52% has been designated as green area on which construction is not allowed for Palestinians, while it remains a strategic reserve for the construction and expansion of settlements. Palestinians have only 14% of the land of Jerusalem where construction is allowed. This area was already overcrowded before the city came under the Israeli occupation in June 1967.

healso referred to the severe drop in the number of buses operating between the West Bank and Gaza Strip from 503 to 72. The permanent unemployment rate amongst Palestinians in Arab East Jerusalem has reached 35%.

In his speech, he noted that Arab Jerusalem is not only a piece of land for the Palestinian people, but also a religious and cultural history. If the Palestinian issue is the core of the Arab-Israeli conflict, Jerusalem is the heart of the Palestinian issue, refugees, Jewish settlements and borders.

DISCLOSURE OF ISRAELI VIOLATIONS
IN EAST JERUSALEM

D
uring a session held in Egypt on 18-20 May 2000, a delegate from JCSER gave a testimony before the UN International Committee for the Investigation of the Israeli violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). The delegate outlined the most prominent practices and violations committed by Israel against Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem, practices which result in the denial of their civil, political, social and economic rights in Jerusalem. The outcomes of Israels policies of ethnic cleansing, house demolition, and citizens denial of residency and citizenship rights in Jerusalem were also referred to. Furthermore, the illegal policy of ID card confiscation and citizens denial of health insurance and allowances from the National Insurance Institute (NII) were mentioned. JCSER also noted that the policy of ID card confiscation and other violations confirm Israels frequent attempts to impose new facts on the ground with the aim of Judaizing the Holy City, changing its landmarks, and emptying the city of its original inhabitants. JCSERs delegate also noted that imposing exorbitant amounts of Arnona tax in an illegal measure serve the same aim as the confiscation of properties and ID cards, namely to force the Arab population out of their homes.

In his testimony, the delegate referred to the Israeli settlement policy in East Jerusalem. He mentioned the confiscation of thousands of dunums to build new Jewish settlements in Ras Al-Amud, Jabal Abu Ghneim, and Abu Dis, as well as the expansion of existing Jewish settlements in the area known as the Good Samaritan Inn. This confirms Israels frequent attempts to Judaize the Holy City, to empty the city of its original inhabitants, and to impose new facts on the ground before entering the final status negotiations with the Palestinians.

The UN International Investigation Committee consists of three ambassadors from Sri Lanka, Malysia and Senigal, and is headed by the Ambassador of Sri Lanka, Mr. John De Saram. The committee members are forbidden from entering the Occupied Palestinian Territories and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in June 1967.

PRESS RELEASES &
PUBLIC AWARENESS

D
uring the period covered in this report, JCSER issued some forty-five statements and press releases dealing with Israeli practices and violations committed against Palestinians. Statements dealt with citizens suffering in regaining their Jerusalem ID cards and obtaining family reunification permits from the Israeli Interior Ministry. The process of having a family reunification application officially approved by the Ministry takes over four years. A statement was issued concerning JCSERs success in obtaining three family reunification permits from the Interior Ministry.

Other statements dealt with the arbitrary and abusive measures taken by the Israeli government with regard to holding back allowances and benefits to which citizens are entitled from the National Insurance Institute, due to their failure to pay the Arnona tax on time. Statements also revealed the illegality of the procedures adopted by the Jerusalem Municipality with regard to issuing unfair court judgements against citizens by requesting them to pay exorbitant amounts of Arnona tax. A statement was released on the revocation of unfair court rulings issued against Palestinian citizens.

Statements unveiled methods adopted by the Israeli Interior Ministry with regard to canceling names of Palestinian Jerusalemites from the Jerusalem census records, which offer health and National Insurance, thus denying their right to free medical treatment. A citizen was forced to pay his medical treatment expenses at the Shaari Zedeq Medical Center in Jerusalem, because his name was cancelled from the health insurance records without his knowledge.

Strongly-worded statements condemned the process of breaking into Arab houses and confiscating their properties by the Bailiff Office in accordance with court decisions. Israeli police units and border guards accompanied by an armed unit from the Jerusalem Municipality broke into Jawad Badirahs house in the Wadi Al-Joz neighborhood in Jerusalem on 21 February 2000.

JCSER issued statements with the aim of raising public awareness concerning their rights at the Jerusalem Municipality, the National Insurance Institute and the Bailiff Office. Public notices were published in the Arabic daily Al-Quds, dated 2nd and 4th April 2000 regarding the right of citizens to free education.

The Center held dozens of field meetings with a number of merchants and citizens to discuss methods to deal with the procedures taken by the Bailiff Office. A meeting was held at the Charitable Society in Beit Safafa concerning this issue. Another meeting was held with the Old Citys merchants whose businesses were shut down by the Israeli police. During the meeting, attendants discussed this issue, which resulted in huge economic and financial losses, especially in the tourism sector. Various points of view were exchanged with regard to future coordination in confronting Israels arbitrary polices in the city. A field meeting was also held with the locals of the neighborhood of At-Tur to discuss the arrest of a number of Arab citizens for raising Palestinian flags during the historic visit of Pope John Paul II to the Holy Land in March 2000. Other various activities carried out by the Center were also discussed.

Tens of individual and group meetings were held to discuss issues related to the Arnona tax, traffic offences and social income insurance. Group meetings were held with business owners highlighting the fact that Palestinian Jerusalemites are facing numerous problems that require immediate intervention by local and international human rights organizations.

LEGAL SERVICES

D
uring the period covered in this report, JCSER has provided free legal aid to Palestinian Jerusalemites through legal presentation and defending them before various Israeli courts, through addressing official parties, and through raising legal public awareness. Since its establishment in late 1997 until 31 August 1999, JCSER received and adopted 1232 cases, an average of 61 cases per month. In its second annual report, covering the period between 1 September 1999 and 31 December 2000, JCSER has received and adopted 819 cases, distributed as follows: 220 family reunification cases, 188 national insurance cases, 246 Arnona tax cases, 35 house demolition cases, and 130 miscellaneous cases, including cases related to Israeli violations.

The Centers legal team submitted hundreds of complaints, objection notifications and urgent requests to official parties concerning grievances submitted by Palestinian citizens. The following presents samples of the cases that were legally pursued and adopted by JCSER in the fields mentioned above.


FAMILY REUNIFICATION

T
he 1948 Israeli-Arab conflict not only resulted in the Israeli occupation of Palestinian land, but also in the dispersion and expulsion of the Palestinian people to different parts of the world. The dispersion of the Palestinian family is most devastating. For instance, a wife lives in Jerusalem, while her husband lives in Jordan and her children study in Cairo or Moscow or London or other parts of the world. This situation became worse by the administrative divisions of the Palestinian land after the War of 1967 and the unilateral annexation of East Jerusalem on 28 June 1967 in explicit violation of international legitimate resolutions. According to the administrative divisions, it is common for a family to live inside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem, while their children who live a few meters away outside the municipal boundaries, are unable to visit their parents because it violates Israeli law. Another example of this practice is a wife who lives inside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem, while her children, brothers and sisters are unable to visit her.

The real tragedy is in the marriages that took place after the Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem in June 1967. If a man carrying a Jerusalem ID card gets married to a woman from the West Bank, according to Israeli laws, he has to apply for family reunification if they want to live together in Jerusalem. However, this procedure is not clear and may take years. Sometimes, they do not receive it at all without any legal justifications. In this case, the wife lives illegally in Jerusalem and is not entitled to any allowances or benefits from the National Insurance Institute. If the couple decides to go and live in the West Bank, the husband, in this case, will lose his residency right in Jerusalem and will have his ID card confiscated. The situation gets more complicated as the children of the couple cannot be registered on their parents ID card, thus they have no access to education, medical care, national insurance allowancesetc.

JCSER follows-up cases related to family reunification and ID card confiscation through its lawyers and brings these cases to Israeli courts, including the Supreme and Central Courts. It has succeeded in obtaining family reunification permits for some citizens that approached the Center. The Centers office provides Palestinian Jerusalemites with free legal assistance through its follow-up of their cases.

ISRAELS ID CARD
CONFISCATION POLICY

S
ince the occupation of Arab East Jerusalem on 5 June 1967, the Israeli occupation authorities have imposed a complex and far-reaching policy of ID card confiscation on the Palestinian residents of Jerusalem. The overall effect is ethnic cleansing of Arab Palestinians in Jerusalem.

The Israeli 1952 Law of Return is applied to Palestinian Jerusalemites, although the city was not under Israeli rule when the law was issued. The Israeli policy does not regard Palestinian Jerusalemites as citizens of Jerusalem, although it was inherited from Arab ancestors through thousands of years. Jews, however, from different parts of the world are allowed to immigrate and settle in Jerusalem with full residency rights. Palestinian Jerusalemites are considered residents until they take up residency in another country. This means that their status as Jerusalemites is on a temporary basis. They are subject to the treatment and conditions of residency rights applied to foreigners, despite their possible deep roots in Jerusalem.

Palestinians who apply for a Jerusalem ID card at the age of 16 are required to meet a number of conditions. These include holding documents concerning:
Housing tax- Arnona- for the last seven years at least.
Electricity bills for the last seven years at least.
Telephone bills.
School certificates provided that the school is located inside the municipal borders of Jerusalem. The certificate covers the grades since he/she was admitted to school.
School certificates for brothers and sisters.
Parents employment certificates.
The applicant must prove that he/she was not residing outside the country for a minimum period of seven years regardless of the reason.

In addition to fulfilling the above conditions, anyone who loses an ID card and wishes to issue a new one is required to report the loss to the police, as well as to make an oath in court to prove that he is telling the truth. After submitting all the necessary documents, the Interior Ministry denies the fact that it received anything, and asks the applicant to submit the documents once again without giving a receipt. If somebodys ID card is withdrawn, his spouse and children under the age of 16 are denied the right to obtain an ID card.

The ID card confiscation policy adopted by the Interior Ministry against Arab residents of East Jerusalem leads to a number of problems, amongst which are the following:
Inability of an individual who loses an ID card to leave his house;
Inability of an individual to undertake employment, creating financial and social consequences.

JCSERs Lawyers undertook issues related to ID card confiscation to the Israeli Interior Ministry. Sometimes, cases were forced to be submitted to the Israeli Supreme Court in Jerusalem and some successes were made in regaining some ID cards.

CASES ADOPTED BY JCSER WITH
ISRAELI INTERIOR MINISTRY

1. IBRAHIM AL-BAHRI
This case was registered at the Center on 31 January 1998. The case is summarized by the refusal of the Interior Ministry to grant the applicant citizenship right and to grant him a Jerusalem ID card, although he resided in Jerusalem before the Israeli occupation in June 1967. Mr. Al-Bahri and his family are facing numerous difficulties and hardships caused by the Ministrys refusal to grant him a Jerusalem ID card. His children are still being denied their basic rights concerning medical care, employment, education, and freedom of movement in their city. Following the intervention of JCSER, lawyers submitted several legal memos concerning the Ministrys procedures taken against Mr. Al-Bahri and his family throughout one and a half years. They also submitted all the necessary documents and papers to regain Mr. Al-Bahris right to obtain a Jerusalem ID card and benefits from which the family has been denied for many years. The case was referred to the Israeli Ministry of Justice when the lawyers failed to reach an agreement with the Interior Ministry. Due to the lawyers inability to reach an agreement with the Ministry of Justice, they decided to refer the case to the Israeli Supreme Court to prove Al-Bahris citizenship right in Jerusalem.
?Al-Bahris case is amongst hundreds of other cases in which Arab citizens are forced to carry a West Bank ID card but live permanently in Jerusalem and are not regarded as Jerusalemites by the Israeli government.

2. AHMAD KAMEL SHAHIN
This case was registered at the Center on 2 May 1998. The case can be summarized as follows:
The Ministry of the Interior has rejected repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1996 to change the personal data on his spouses ID card, Majdoline Aref Qunbar, from single to married and to register their child. The Ministry of the Interior asked Ahmad Shahin to submit several documents to prove his center of life in Jerusalem, even though he and his wife were born in the Old City of Jerusalem and have lived there ever since. Ahmad Shahin approached the Center for legal advice. After submitting a number of memos complaining about the Ministrys procedures used against their client, the Centers lawyers sent a strongly-worded letter to the Director of the Interior Ministry concerning the need to change the data in Majdolines ID card and to register the child on her Jerusalem ID card. JCSER has been successful in obtaining the Ministrys official approval to change the social status of Majdolines ID card from single to married and to register their child on her ID card.

3. ISMAIL KHALIL
The case was registered at the Center on 15 June 1999 and is summarized as follows:
The applicant did not receive any response from the Ministry of the Interior concerning the repeated applications submitted since 1996 to obtain a family reunification permit for his spouse, Basimah, although he was born in Jerusalem and holds a Jerusalem ID card. Ismail and his family live in Jerusalem. On 8 February 2000, and after submitting all the necessary documents and fulfilling conditions and requirements set by the Ministry, the Center has been able to obtain its official approval to issue a family reunification permit for Khalils spouse.

4. ILHAM NUMAN YACOUB ABU SUBEIH
The case was registered at the Center on 3 May 1999 and is summarized as follows:
Ilham applied for family reunification for her husband, Khader Said Tawfiq Abu Subeih, who has been denied citizenship and residency rights since 1994 despite repeated attempts with the Ministry of the Interior. Ilham Abu Subeih approached JCSER for legal aid. Following the intervention of JCSER and the submission of documents to prove Mr. Abu Subeihs citizenship right in Jerusalem, a number of memos were sent to the Ministry. These notes confirmed that there was no reason for the case not to be processed and that the Center would be willing to take further legal action if it did not receive a positive response. On 5 March 1999, the applicant obtained the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification permit five years after the application was submitted.

5. AMJAD AL-MUHTASEB
The case, registered at the Center on 6 October 1999, can be summarized as follows:
Amjad Al-Muhtaseb applied for a Jerusalem ID card at the age of 16 after losing it during a visit to Jordan. He approached the Center for legal advice. After providing all the necessary documents and papers, the Centers lawyers submitted a number of memos to the Ministry of the Interior. Eight months later, the applicant was asked by the Ministry to provide further papers. A final memo was sent to the Ministry forcing it to grant the applicant a Jerusalem ID card. Amjads suffering came to an end after he was finally granted a Jerusalem ID card.

6. AMNEH AHMAD DARWISH DAMRAH
A summary of this case registered at the Center on 5 November 1998 follows:
The Ministry of the Interior turned down the family reunification application submitted by Amneh Damrah to register her children on her Jerusalem ID card, although she was born in Jerusalem and holds a Jerusalem ID card. She submitted all the documents requested by the Interior Ministry. Amneh Damrah has two children, three-year-old Hanin, and six-year-old Mohammed, both born in Jerusalem. The family faced numerous difficulties and hardships, as a result of the Ministrys refusal to approve the family reunification application. Mrs. Damrahs children have been denied residency and citizenship rights and their entitlements from the National Insurance Institute (NII). The case was followed-up by the Centers lawyers for over a year. On 20 January 2000, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification permit for Mrs. Damrahs children and to register them on her ID card.

7. AMINEH IBRAHIM AL-BAYYA
This case was registered at the Center on 21 March 1999. It can be summarized as follows:
The Ministry of the Interior has refused repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1996 to obtain a family reunification permit for her husband, Mahmoud Mohammed Rabaya, and to grant him a permanent residency permit, although she was born in Jerusalem and holds a Jerusalem ID card. She has been married to her husband for four years. Following the intervention of the Center, the lawyers submitted a number of memos and requests during a seven-month period. On 12 October 1999, the Centers lawyers succeeded in obtaining the Ministrys official approval to grant Amineh Al-Bayya a family reunification permit to her husband and her two children, two-and-a-half-year-old Hanin, and 14-months-old Ala.

8. ANMAR MUHSEN SULEIMAN DAJANI
The case was registered at the Center on 1 February 2000 and is summarized as follows:
After reaching the legal age of 16, the applicant was not granted a Jerusalem ID card. Anmar Dajani, a school student, was asked by the Interior Ministry to submit a number of difficult and impossible documents to prove his place of residence in Jerusalem. The case was adopted and followed-up by the Centers lawyers who submitted a number of memos to the Ministry confirming that all the documents had been submitted. Each time, the Ministry used to ask for new papers and documents. On 2 August 2000, and after much legal pressure, the Ministry approved the ID card application. Anmar Dajanis suffering came to an end after being denied his basic rights to education, medical treatment and freedom of movement for a six-month period.

9. BASEM HUSSEIN AL-KAYYALI
This case was registered at the Center on 4 August 1999. It can be summarized as follows:
The Ministry of the Interior refused repeated applications submitted by the applicant to obtain a family reunification permit for his wife, Suhaila, although he was born in Jerusalem and holds a Jerusalem ID card. He submitted all the documents frequently asked by the Ministry to prove his center of life in Jerusalem, but to no avail. The Ministry refused to study the applications and to grant his wife a family reunification permit. This caused difficulties and hardships to the family and denied their basic rights to residency, movement, housing, medical treatment, and social services from the National Insurance Institute.

The case was adopted and pursed by the Centers lawyers who submitted a number of notifications complaining about the illegal and abusive measures taken by the Ministry against Al-Kayyalis family. On 24 November 1999, after three months of follow-up and legal efforts, the Center succeeded in obtaining the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification permit for Basems wife and to register her on the Jerusalem census records.

10. BASIMAH DEEB HUSSEIN SANDOUKA
Basimah Sandouka approached the Center on 3 February 2000 after being informed about the confiscation of her childrens ID cards: Nidal, Shireen and Ali as of 17 November 1999 under the pretext that Mrs. Sandouka does not live permanently inside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem. JCSER believed that it is inconceivable for Palestinian Jerusalemites to remain inside the municipal boundaries and are not allowed to move outside these boundaries, especially as international laws and humanitarian legislation allow human beings to move freely from one place to another without any restrictions.

In an attempt to challenge Israels policy of racial discrimination, JCSER published a public notice in local newspapers calling on citizens that have similar cases to approach the Center for legal consultation and to follow-up their cases with the Interior Ministry and legal parties. JCSER sent a number of memos to the Interior Ministry complaining about the confiscation of Sandoukas ID cards in explicit violation of the Ministrys instructions issued in late 1999.

11. JAMAL MNAYER
The case registered at the Center on 2 August 1999, can be summarized as follows:
The Ministry of the Interior delayed its decision concerning repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1995 to obtain a family reunification permit for his wife, Dalal. He was frequently asked by the Ministry to provide difficult documents to prove his center of life in Jerusalem, although he was born in Jerusalem and holds a Jerusalem ID card. He lives with his family in Jerusalem. Following the intervention of the Center, the lawyers took all the necessary legal measures and submitted a number of memos to the Ministry. On 31 January 2000, after months of follow-up and legal efforts, JCSER was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to grant Mr. Mnayers wife, Dalal, a family reunification permit and to register her on the Jerusalem census record.

12. JAMILEH MOHAMMED IBRAHIM AL-GHAWI
Jamileh Al-Ghawis ID card was confiscated on 5 March 2000 when she applied for an ID card renewal application and because of her frequent visits to Jordan. Jamileh Al-Ghawi owns a house in the neighborhood of Sheikh Jarrah in Jerusalem and has a health insurance. She provided all the necessary documents and papers required by the Ministry of the Interior. After submitting a number of memos concerning the illegality of the ID card confiscation, the Center succeeded in regaining Ms. Ghawis ID card.
?The case was registered at JCSER on 23 April 2000.

13. HUSSEIN IBRAHIM SHQEIRAT
Hussein Shqeirat, 24, is a Palestinian Jerusalemite from the neighborhood of Jabal Mukkaber in Jerusalem. He was born in Jerusalem and studied there. He lives with his parents in the same house he was born. Mr. Shqeirat lost his Jerusalem ID card in late 1997. He lodged a complaint to the Israeli police. When he applied for an ID card application, he was asked by the Ministry of the Interior to submit a bunch of documents and papers, such as the Arnona tax, school certificates, and electricity and water bills for the past seven years. Despite this, Mr. Shqeirat was unable to obtain a Jerusalem ID card for over two years, during which he has been denied his basic rights to health insurance, employment and freedom of movement.

He approached the Center for legal advice. The Centers lawyers sent a number of memos to the Interior Ministry, attaching all the necessary documents.

When the application was delayed, the Centers lawyers were forced to file a case against the Interior Ministry at the Israel Supreme Court, which gave the Ministry a one-month period to reach an agreement with the Center. The lawyers pursued the case at the court. On 2 October 2000, the Center was able to restore Mr. Shqeirats ID card.

14. KHAWLAH BASIT
Khawlah Basit has two cases registered at the Center. The first was registered on 6 September 1999. It can be summarized as follows:
The Interior Ministry turned down the application submitted by Khawlah Basit in 1993 to obtain a family reunification permit for her husband, because he was living illegally in Jerusalem. His Jordanian passport is held at the Ministry and the case is still being pursued by the Centers lawyers.

The second case is summarized as follows:
The Interior Ministry turned down the family reunification application submitted by Khawlah Basit to register her daughter, Shatha, on her Jerusalem ID card. Shathas brothers and sisters, Rasha, Fadi and Shadi are registered on their mothers ID card. Khawlah Basit provided all the necessary documents and papers required by the Ministry to register her daughter on her ID card. At a later time, it was discovered that Mrs. Basits ID card had been confiscated without her knowledge. On 11 June 2000, JCSER was able to restore Mrs. Basits ID card. Mrs. Basits daughter, Shatha, is being denied her basic rights to medial treatment, education and other services for not having her name registered on her mothers ID card.

15. ZAHIYA ABU AL-HAWA
Case registered at JCSER on 24 January 1999.
Zahiya Al-Hawa has not received a response from the Ministry of the Interior concerning the repeated applications submitted since 1996 to obtain a family reunification for her 13-year-old son Mohammed, despite the fact that she submitted all the necessary documents and papers to prove her place of residence in Jerusalem. Mrs. Hawa and her children were born in Jerusalem. On 17 December 2000, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification for Mohammed Abu Al-Hawa and to register him on his mothers ID card after submitting a number of notifications complaining about the measures taken against the applicant.

16. ZIAD MAHMOUD KAMEL AL-BARQ
The case was registered at the Center on 21 April 1999. It can be summarized as follows:
Ziad Al-Barq applied for family reunification for his spouse in 1996. Following the intervention of the Center, the lawyers submitted all the necessary documents and papers to prove Mr. Barqs place of residence in Jerusalem. Mr. Barqs spouse was granted a temporary ID card on 6 July 1999 after submitting a final memo to the Ministry. With this, the familys suffering came to an end three years after the application was submitted. This is another example of the Ministrys policy to delay the approval of family reunification applications submitted by Palestinian citizens for several years.

17. RANIA WALID AYYAD
Rania Ayyad is a Palestinian Jerusalemite, a resident of Shufat Refugee Camp in Jerusalem. She married Adeeb Daoud Sabri Ayyad, a resident of Anata, a few meters away from her place of residence. They rented a house in the camp inside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem. In 1997, Mrs. Ayyad applied for family reunification for her husband and on 18 May 1997, they had a child, Daoud. The Ministry did not respond to the application. On 28 December 1999, Mrs. Ayyad approached the Center for legal assistance. The Centers lawyers sent a memo to the Ministry, attached with documents and papers, demanding it to expedite the approval of the application. In March 2000, the Center succeeded in obtaining the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification permit for Ranias husband.

18. SUHEIR MOHAMMED MAHMOUD BISHARAT
Suheir Bisharat is a Palestinian Jerusalemite from the neighborhood of Al-Issawiyya in Jerusalem. In September 1998, she married her cousin, Raed Khaled Ahmad Bisharat, a resident of the village of Jaba in the district of Ramallah. They lived in the neighborhood of Al-Issawiyya in Jerusalem. Mrs. Bisharat applied for family reunification for her husband in order to live together in Jerusalem. On 26 October 1999, they had their first baby, Khaled, but the Ministry of the Interior refused to register the child on the mothers Jerusalem ID card.

On 5 July 2000, Mrs. Bisharat approached the Center seeking legal aid. The Centers lawyer submitted a memo to the Ministry referring to the fact that two years have passed since the family reunification application was submitted, especially as the applicant provided all documents and papers proving the familys center of life in Jerusalem. The Center gave the Ministry a one-month period to reply before resorting to the Israeli Supreme Court. As the Ministry continued to delay the approval of the family reunification and the registration of the child on his mothers ID card, the Center took legal steps against the Ministrys delay. The Prosecution Office, in turn, sent a memo to the Ministry demanding it to expedite the approval of the family reunification application and the registration of the child on his mothers ID card. Upon writing this report, the case is still outstanding.

19. SAWSAN BASTAMI
This case was registered at the Center on 5 May 1999 and can be summarized as follows:
The Ministry of the Interior turned down repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1996 to obtain a family reunification for her husband, Mohammed Abdel Majid Bastami. Sawsan Bastami approached the Center for legal consultation. The Centers lawyer submitted a number of memos to the Ministry dated 5/5/1999, 11/5/1999 & 1/6/1999. The Ministry replied, requesting that the applicant must provide further documents to prove her place of residence in Jerusalem. On 7 June 1999, the lawyer sent a final memo and on 1 June 2000, the Ministry approved the family reunification application. With this, the familys suffering came to an end after being denied their basic rights to medical treatment, housing, employment and other services for four years.

20. SHAWKAT YOUSEF HIDMI
The case was registered at the Center on 28 October 1999. It can be summarized as follows:
The applicant applied for a family reunification for his wife, Hiyam Abdel Karim Amin, in 1996. Shawkat Hidmi paid frequent visits to the Ministrys office in Jerusalem to pursue the application. He was told that other parties are studying the file, and in particular, the police. Following the intervention of the Center and the submission of several memos, the Ministry asked for further papers and documents to prove the applicants place of residence in Jerusalem for a minimum period of seven years. On 8 November 1999, the Center sent a memo to inquire about Mrs. Amins family reunification application, without any reply. On 30 December 1999, after two months of legal follow-up, the Center sent another memo to the Ministry attached with documents and papers that proved the citizens residency right in Jerusalem. On 29 February 2000, Hiyam Amin was granted a permanent residency permit in Jerusalem four years after the application was submitted.

21. AIDA ZAKARIA AS-SOUS
Aida Sous is a Palestinian Jerusalemite, married and a mother of two children. She lives with her family in Jerusalem. The family faced numerous difficulties and hardships, as a result of the Ministrys refusal to approve repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1995, the year of her marriage, to issue a family reunification permit for her husband, Jihad As-Sous, although they provided all the necessary documents that proved their residency right in Jerusalem. As a result, the family has been denied benefits and allowances to which they are entitled from the National Insurance Institute. The case was taken up by the Center. The Centers lawyers sent a strongly-worded letter complaining about the measures taken by the Ministry against their client and its refusal to approve the application. After submitting a number of urgent requests attached with documents and legal evidences, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification permit and a Jerusalem ID card for Aidas husband.

22. ABDEL HALIM AL-JOULANI
The case was registered at the Center on 4 October 1999. The Ministry of the Interior delayed its decision concerning repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1995 to obtain a family reunification for his spouse, Rula, although documents and papers that proved his residency right in Jerusalem were submitted. The case was adopted by the Center, which submitted a number of urgent memos and took legal action against the Ministrys delay in approving the application. On 7 February 2000, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification for Rula and to register her on the Jerusalem census records.

23. ABDEL FATTAH MOHAMMED MAHMOUD SHAABNEH
The case was registered at the Center on 24 May 1998. It can be summarized as follows:
The Ministry of the Interior has refused repeated applications submitted by Abdel Fattahs spouse, Fatinah Bahjat Shaabneh, to obtain a family reunification permit for her husband and her five children: 12-year-old Najah, 11-year-old Mohammed, nine-year-old Hanin, four-year-old Suzan, and two-year-old Fatimah. The applications were turned down under the pretext that the family has resided outside Jerusalem between 1987 and 1995, despite the fact that the applicant has provided all the necessary documents and papers proving the familys center of life in Jerusalem.

Following the intervention of the Center and the submission of several memos, the Ministry asked for additional papers and documents to prove the familys place of residence in Jerusalem. It also provided the Ministry with a copy of the Israeli and Jordanian marriage contract.

On 2 April 2000, following continuos legal efforts, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to register Mrs. Shaabnehs children on their mothers Jerusalem ID card. This on the condition that the Interior Minister has the right to revoke the family reunification if turned out that it was provided with inaccurate information about the familys place of residence.

As for the approval of Abdel Fattahs family reunification, the Ministry asked for more documents and papers. On 11 May 2000, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification for Abdel Fattah Shaabneh and to grant him a permanent residency permit in Jerusalem. The family members are now entitled to their basic rights to movement, work, education, child benefit, medical care and other services after having been illegally denied these rights for several years.
?This case confirms repeated attempts by Israeli institutions to delay the approval of the majority of family reunification applications submitted by Palestinian citizens with the aim of clearing out the city of its original inhabitants in favor of Jewish settlers.

24. ISAM OMRAN AL-HAYMOUNI
The case was registered at the Center on 2 August 1999. It can be summarized as follows:
The Ministry of the Interior delayed its decision concerning repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1994 to obtain a family reunification permit for his spouse, Khitam, although all the necessary documents and papers that proved his residency right in Jerusalem were provided. Isam Haymouni was born in Jerusalem and holds a Jerusalem ID card. Mr. Haymouni and his wife are permanent residents of Jerusalem. After submitting a number of urgent memos complaining about the measures taken against the applicant, and other memos to speed up the approval of the application, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification for Mr. Haymounis wife on 17 February 2000. She was also registered on the Jerusalem census records.

25. IMAD NOUH DANA
The case was registered at the Center on 6 May 1999. The Ministry of the Interior turned down the application submitted by the applicant in 1996 to obtain a family reunification for his wife, although all the necessary documents and papers frequently requested by the Ministry were provided. Imad Dana was born in Jerusalem, holds a Jerusalem ID card and lives permanently in Jerusalem. After taking legal action against the arbitrary measures taken by the Ministry against the applicant, the Center was able to obtain its official approval to issue a family reunification for Mr. Danas wife on 5 January 2000 and to register her on the Jerusalem census records.

26. OMAR MOHAMMED MAHMOUD SHAMASNEH
Omar Shamasneh, a resident of Qatanneh, was born in 1972. He married Hiba Fahmi Mohammed Zahran from Shufat Refugee Camp on 30 July 1997. They rented a house in the refugee camp. Hiba Zahran applied for family reunification for her husband. Their first baby, Hadil, was born on 29 September 1998. Hiba Zahran was unable to register her newborn baby on her Jerusalem ID card, just as she could not obtain a family reunification for her husband. On 9 February 2000, Hiba Zahran, approached the Center for legal assistance. After studying the case, the Center decided to send several memos to the Ministry of the Interior requesting its immediate approval of the family reunification application and to register Mrs. Zahrans daughter on her Jerusalem ID card. Under pressure from the Centers lawyer, the family reunification application was approved and the newborn baby was registered on her mothers ID card on 23 April 2000. With this, the familys suffering came to an end and is now entitled to health insurance and child benefit from the National Insurance Institute (NII) after having been illegally denied these allowances for some time.

27. FADIA MOHAMMED SALAH ED-DIN
Fadia Salah Ed-Din, a Palestinian Jerusalemite and a resident of the neighborhood of Ras Al-Amud in Jerusalem, is married and a mother of five children Abbas, Fadi, Rasha, Shatha, and Nora. They were all born in Jerusalem. Fadia Salah Ed-Din has been married for over 22 years. The family faced numerous difficulties and hardships caused by the Ministrys refusal to approve repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1994 to obtain a family reunification permit for her husband, Hatem Abbas, and to register her children on her Jerusalem ID card. The family has been denied their basic rights to child benefit, medical care, education and other rights to which family members are entitled from the National Insurance Institute. The Center submitted a number of memos complaining about the Ministrys measures taken against the family, including 58 documents that proved the familys residency right in Jerusalem. On 14 September 1999, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to grant Fadias husband, Hatem Abbas, a family reunification and to register their children on her ID card.

28. FATIMAH DEIS
Fatimah Deis applied for a new Jerusalem ID card after she lost her ID card in the Old City. She approached the Center for legal help. The Centers lawyer sent a number of memos to the Ministry, but to no avail. Each time, the Ministry merely asked for further documents and papers to prove Fatimahs residency right in Jerusalem. On 27 June 1999, the ID card application was officially approved after the Centers lawyer submitted a final memo. Fatimah Deis received her Jerusalem ID card on 28 March 2000 after nine months of delay.
?This case confirms that the Ministry of the Interior intentionally delays the approval of applications submitted by Palestinian Jerusalemites.

29. FIDA SAMIR AL-BIBI
Fida Al-Bibi was born in Jerusalem and is a permanent resident of Jerusalem. She applied for a Jerusalem ID card at the age of 16, but the application was rejected claiming that documents provided by her were inadequate. She approached the Center on 4 January 1999 for legal help. Fida Bibi was granted a Jerusalem ID card.

?The Interior Ministry requests that Palestinian Jerusalemites provide difficult and illegal documents and papers to prove that their center of life is within the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem.

30. CAROLINE AL-BANDAK
The case was registered at the Center on 3 August 1999. Caroline Bandak applied for family reunification for her husband, but the application was rejected by the Ministry of the Interior due to its refusal to recognize Mrs. Bandaks citizenship and residency rights in Jerusalem. As a result, her husband was denied medical care, freedom of movement, employment and other rights for several years. Caroline Bandak approached the Center for legal help. The lawyers sent a number of memos to the Ministry of the Interior, attaching documents and papers to prove Mrs. Bandaks citizenship and residency rights in Jerusalem. However, the Ministry continued to ask for further documents. In reaction to this, the lawyers sent a memo asking the Ministry to expedite the approval of the application, especially as the applicant fulfilled all conditions and requirements. On 1 June 2000, the Center succeeded in obtaining the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification for Mrs. Bandaks husband, whose suffering came to an end after having been denied residency and citizenship rights in Jerusalem for several years.

31. KIFAH ABU SUBEIH
The case was registered at the Center on 21 January 1999 and can be summarized as follows:
Kifah Abu Subeih was born and lives with her husband and children in Jerusalem. The family suffered numerous social and economic difficulties and hardships, as a result of the Ministrys refusal to approve repeated applications submitted by Mrs. Abu Subeih since 1996 to obtain a family reunification for her husband, Nimer Abu Subeih. Since that time, they have been denied social services and benefits to which they are entitled from the National Insurance Institute.

The Interior Ministry intentionally delayed studying and approving the application and frequently asked the applicant to provide further documents to prove her center of life in Jerusalem for the past seven years. Mrs. Abu Subeih approached the Center for legal advice. The Centers lawyers took all the necessary legal procedures and submitted a number of notifications complaining about the Ministrys unjustified delay in approving the application. After ten months of legal procedures, the Center was finally able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to issue a family reunification permit for Mrs. Abu Subeihs husband and to register him on the Jerusalem census record on 25 November 1999.

32. LAILA AS-SHARIF
This case was registered at the Center on 31 July 1999. It can be summarized as follows:
The Ministry of the Interior turned down the family reunification application submitted by the applicant in 1995. The case was adopted by the Center, whose lawyers sent a number of memos demanding the Ministry to expedite the approval of the application. Each time, the Ministry requested more documents and papers that proved her place of residence in Jerusalem over the past seven years. Following months of legal efforts and follow-up by the Centers lawyers, the Ministry replied stating that the application was under discussion. The family reunification application was approved after five years of suffering and denial of residency and citizenship rights in Jerusalem.

33. MAHER FARID ABDEL NAJID TAWIL
Maher Tawil is married and is the father of a four-year-old daughter. The Ministry of the Interior turned down the application submitted by the applicant in 1995 to obtain a family reunification permit for his wife, Rania Tawil, a resident of Jordan, for security reasons. He approached the Center for legal advice. The Centers lawyers sent a number of memos to the Ministry, which continued to reject the application under the pretext that the husband was held in Israeli jails for a 20 month-period for security reasons. On 1 March 2000, five years after the first application was submitted, the applicant was granted the approval to apply for a new application carrying the number of the original one. The first stage of Maher Tawils suffering came to an end, and a new stage is ahead to prove his center of life in Jerusalem for a minimum period of seven years.

34. MOHAMMED TAWFIQ YACOUB
The Ministry of the Interior turned down the family reunification application submitted by Mohammed Yacoub to register his one-and-a-half-year-old daughter Bara on his Jerusalem ID card, though they are permanent residents of Jerusalem. The case was adopted by the Centers lawyers for over one year, during which they submitted a number of notifications complaining about the Ministrys refusal to approve the application, although documents and papers to prove the applicants center of life in Jerusalem since 1967 were provided. After taking legal action, the Center was able to obtain the Ministrys official approval to grant Mr. Yacoubs daughter a family reunification and to register her on the Jerusalem census record as of 10 November 1999.

35. MOHAMMED AHMAD AL-HUSSEINI
The case was registered at the Center on 22 July 1999. The Ministry of the Interior delayed its decision concerning repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1996 to obtain a family reunification permit for his wife, Sireen Al-Khaldi. Documents and papers to prove Mr. Al-Husseinis center of life in Jerusalem for a minimum period of seven years were provided. Mohammed Al-Husseini and his wife Sireen Al-Khaldi were born in Jerusalem and are permanent residents of Jerusalem. The Ministry continued to delay the approval of the application, thus forcing the applicant to approach the Center seeking legal advice. The case was followed-up by the Centers lawyers for five months period, during which they refuted the arbitrary measures taken against their client. On 15 December 1999, the Center succeeded in obtaining the Ministrys official approval of the family reunification application.

36. MOHAMMED YOUSEF MOUSA
This case was registered at the Center on 31 August 1999. Mohammed Mousa applied for family reunification for his son Mustafa on 20 June 1995. The Ministry of the Interior rejected the application three months after it was submitted under the pretext that Mohammeds son was born in Jordan. Mr. Mousas children who were born in Jordan are registered on his ID card and are entitled to benefits and allowances from the National Insurance Institute. Mustafas name was cancelled from his mothers ID card, because he was registered as an escort without an ID no., according to a decision made by the Ministry of the Interior. Mohammed Mousa approached the Center for legal help. On 14 January 2000, the Centers lawyer sent a memo to the Ministry and on 9 February 2000, Mohammeds son was granted a family reunification and his name was registered on the Jerusalem census record.

37. MUNA ABU JUMA
The Ministry of the Interior turned down an application submitted by Muna Abu Juma to obtain a family reunification for her husband, Mohammed Saleh Abu Juma, a Jordanian passport holder, and to register her children on her Jerusalem ID card. The application was rejected under the pretext that the family lives outside the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem. Mrs. Abu Juma approached JCSER on 5 December 1998 seeking legal advice. JCSERs lawyer submitted several memos attaching documents and papers to prove the applicants residency right in Jerusalem. However, the Ministry refused the application and to register Mrs. Abu Jumas children on her Jerusalem ID card claiming that she resides with her husband in Jordan, thus depriving the family their basic rights to medical treatment, child benefit and other allowances and benefits from the National Insurance Institute. Muna Juma, however, used to visit her husband in Jordan, because he was not granted a visit permit to Jerusalem. The Ministry asked her to apply for a new application after proving her place of residence in Jerusalem and allowing her husband to visit the Holy Land in October 1998. The case is still being pursued with the Ministry of the Interior.

38. MUNA HANNA KHADER
This case was registered at the Center on 22 July 1999. The Ministry of the Interior has rejected, without any legal justifications, repeated applications submitted by Muna Khader since 1995 to obtain a family reunification permit for her husband, Gyros Khader, and to register her children on her Jerusalem ID card. Mrs. Khader and her children were born in Jerusalem and live permanently with their father in the Old City of Jerusalem. The family was forced to live under difficult circumstances, as a result of the Ministrys disapproval of the family reunification application. For over five years, the family has been denied social services and benefits provided by the National Insurance Institute.

The case was adopted by the Centers lawyer who sent several notifications complaining about the arbitrary measures taken against the family. After taking legal action and proving the illegality of the Ministrys measures, the Center obtained its official approval of the application on 17 November 1999 and Mrs. Khaders husband was officially registered on the Jerusalem census record. The Center continued its efforts concerning the registration of Mrs. Khaders children on her Jerusalem ID card. After submitting several memos attached with documents and papers, Mrs. Khaders children were registered on her ID card and on the Jerusalem census record on 30 July 2000. It took one year to register Mrs. Khaders children on her ID card, although they were born in Jerusalem. They have been denied their basic rights to medical care, child benefit and other allowances from the National Insurance Institute until their names were registered on their mothers ID card.

39. NASER ABDULLAH ELAYYAN
Naser Elayyan is a Palestinian Jerusalemite, a permanent resident of Jerusalem, married and a father of a two-year-old daughter. The Ministry of the Interior has refused repeated applications submitted by the applicant since 1996 to issue a family reunification for his wife, Zbeida Elayyan without any legal justifications. However, documents and papers frequently requested by the Ministry were submitted. Mr. Elayyan approached the Center for legal aid. It submitted a memo to protest against the measures taken by the Ministry against their client, demanding it to expedite the approval of the application. The Center succeeded in obtaining an official approval of the application.

40. NAWZAT AR-RABI
The applicant approached the Center on 8 December 1998 seeking legal assistance concerning the family reunification application for her husband submitted in 1995. The Centers lawyers sent several memos to the Ministry of the Interior concerning the case. The latter replied The application was under discussion. After one-and-a-half-year of delay, the Centers lawyers threatened to resort to the Israeli Supreme Court to end the suffering of the family who has been denied medical care, residency, work and other rights. On 27 July 2000, the Ministry finally approved the family reunification application and the family was granted a residency permit in Jerusalem.

41. HANA MAHMOUD ATWAN
Hana Atwan is a Palestinian Jerusalemite and a permanent resident of Jerusalem. The Ministry of the Interior refused repeated applications submitted by Mrs. Atwan to obtain a family reunification for her husband, Haitham Atwan, under the pretext that he lives in Jordan. She approached the Center for legal assistance. Legal action was taken and several memos were submitted attached with documents and papers to prove the applicants residency right in Jerusalem, refuting the arbitrary measures taken against their client. Over two years of consultation with the Interior Ministry and the Israeli Embassy in Jordan, the Center obtained an official approval of the family reunification on 8 February 2000.